An informational document that generally informs readers on the philosophy, objectives, and technology of a project or initiative. White papers are often provided before the launch of a new coin or token. They are largely held to academic/institutional-grade standards of writing.
A Bitcoin address which contains a desired word/pattern or sequence of numbers. Similar to a customized number plate.
A group of transactions that are collected and hashed on the Bitcoin network by being added to the blockchain.
Tor, which stands for 'The Onion Router', is a free web browser designed to protect users anonymity and resist censorship, allowing them to surf the web anonymously and access sites on the deep web.
Crypto tokens enable the creation of open, decentralized networks, and provides a way to incentivize participants in the network (with both network growth and token appreciation). This innovation, made popular with the introduction of ethereum, has given rise to a wave of token networks (e.g. prediction markets, content creation networks, etc.) and token pre-sales, or ICOs.
A proof that a piece of data existed at a certain point in time. For bitcoin, this is the cryptographic proof when transactions have taken place.
An alternative blockchain on which developers can test and experiment with changes to a cryptocurrency without the risk of damaging or interfering with the real blockchain.
A measure of correlation between two addresses, this is used in attempts to track a coin’s history.
The reward you receive for supporting the network by holding coins and running a node. If you have coins in a wallet that are PoS coins, your supply of coins will grow as long as you are holding the coins.
Acronym for Simplified Payment Verification. An SPV allows mobile clients to make payments without needing a copy of the entire blockchain.
Ethereum’s programming language for developing smart contracts.
A soft fork differs from a hard fork in that only previously valid transactions are made invalid. Since old nodes recognize the new blocks as valid, a soft fork is essentially backward compatible. This type of fork requires that most miners upgrade in order to enforce, while a hard fork requires all nodes to agree on the new version.
The online marketplace where drugs and other illicit items could be traded for bitcoin. Accessible through TOR, Silk Road was shut down in October 2013 by the FBI.
Theoretical, independent blockchains which are “two way pegged” to the Bitcoin blockchain. These can have their own unique features and can have bitcoins sent to and from them.
A scaling solution for blockchains. Typically, every node in a blockchain network houses a complete copy of the blockchain. Sharding is a method that allows nodes to have partial copies of the complete blockchain in order to increase overall network performance and consensus speeds.
Smart contracts help you exchange money, property, shares, or anything of value in a transparent, conflict-free way while avoiding the services of a middleman. The best way to describe smart contracts is to compare the technology to a vending machine. Ordinarily, you would go to a lawyer or a notary, pay them, and wait until you get the document. With smart contracts, you simply drop a bitcoin into the vending machine (i.e. ledger), and your escrow, driver’s license, or whatever drops into your account. More so, smart contracts not only define the rules and penalties around an agreement in the same way that a traditional contract does, but also automatically enforces those obligations.
The process where the block size limit on a blockchain is increased by removing digital signature data and moving it to the end of a transaction to free up capacity. Transactions are essentially split (or 'segregated') into two segments: the original data segment and the signature (or 'witness') segment. Also referred to as a SegWit.
The mysterious creator of bitcoin. Known to possess over a million bitcoins. His/her/their identity is still unknown.
An upcoming protocol change to ethereum that will enable high-speed transfers across the network. It is similar in some aspects to bitcoin’s Lightning Network. The name, we assume, comes from the Mortal Kombat character named Raiden that can shoot lightning from his fists.